In mid-August, South England was very hot for a few days. The room without air conditioning was like a steamer, so I decided to go to the Southeast Kent to visit the historical and cultural city of Canterbury (the starting point for Christianity to enter the British Isles), explore the British religious and cultural gates, and appreciate the rich coastal customs. From the history and literature textbooks of middle school, my initial understanding of English literature and language came from “The Canterbury Tales”, which is widely regarded as a sign of the shaping of the modern popular English. It contains some humorous and easy-to-understand stories. It shows a broad picture of the British social life, which has made me curious and interested in it since I was a child.
There is no direct train from Surrey to Canterbury. You need to go north to London first, then walk to Waterloo East Station through Sharing Cross, and then changed to a train that goes east. It took about three hours before arriving at Canterbury station.
坎特伯雷是罗马天主教会在英国最早的落脚点，现为圣公会实际领袖坎特伯雷大主教驻锡之地。坎特伯雷座堂及圣奥斯定隐修院等已被联合国列入世界文化遗产。因此也成为英国最受欢迎的旅游城市之一。之前很早看书就了解到坎特伯雷的历史很大程度反应了英国历史的演进，不同的民族来到这里定居，并最终形成了盎格鲁-撒克逊民族。坎特伯雷最早是不列颠人（凯尔特人）聚集，名为“*Durou̯ernon”这个词源自于古不列颠语词“*duro-”意为要塞“u̯erno-”。公元1世纪罗马人入侵英伦三岛，占领这里之后改为“Durovernum Cantiacorum”。后来这里又成为朱特人聚居地，此时才改名Canterbury，而这个词则是来自古英语Cantwareburh（肯特人的要塞）。在英国的几年里，我发现英格兰南部很多地方地名都以“bury”结尾，比如Salisbury, Newbury, Amesbury等，可能都源于和坎特伯雷一样的历史背景。 597年肯特王国皈依基督教，坎特伯雷的圣奥古斯丁在此城市成立主教教座，而他本人也成为第一任坎特伯雷大主教。14世纪乔叟的《坎特伯雷故事集》亦以到此处朝圣为故事背景。
Canterbury is the earliest foothold of the Roman Catholic Church in the United Kingdom. It is now the home of the Archbishop of Canterbury, which is the actual leader of the Anglican Church. In Canterbury, now Canterbury Cathedral and St. Augustine’s Monastery have been listed as World Cultural Heritage by the United Nations. Therefore, it makes Canterbury become one of the most popular tourist towns in the UK. I read a book many years ago and learned that Canterbury’s history largely reflects the evolution of British history. Different peoples came here to settle down and eventually formed the Anglo-Saxon nation. Canterbury was the first place where the primitive British (Celtic) gathered, named “*Durou̯ernon”. This word comes from the ancient British word “*duro-” meaning fortress “u̯erno-“. The Romans invaded the British Isles in the first century AD, and after occupying here, it was changed to “Durovernum Cantiacorum”. Later, it became a settlement of the Jutes, and it was renamed Canterbury at this time, and the word came from Old English Cantwareburh (Kent fortress). In the few years in the UK, I found that many places’ name in southern England end with “bury”, such as Salisbury, Newbury, Amesbury, etc., which may all come from the same historical background like the Canterbury. The Kingdom of Kent converted to Christianity in 597. St. Augustine of Canterbury established the bishop’s seat in this city, and he himself became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the 14th century, Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales” is also based on the pilgrimage here.
和吉尔福德作为伦敦都市圈的一个城镇不同，坎特伯雷给我的第一印象就是它的古朴，优美和浓厚的历史文化背景。坎特伯雷整体来说地势平坦，没有那么多上坡下坡路，可以让人放松地在城区里漫步。在坎特伯雷，我花了大概一天半的时间游览了Westgate gardens & Tower, 坎特伯雷画廊及图书馆 The Beauty House of Art & Knowledge,坎特伯雷大座堂，圣奥古斯丁修道院遗址，以及罗马博物馆。
Unlike Guildford as a town in the London metropolitan area, Canterbury’s first impression of me is its simplicity, beauty and strong historical and cultural background. Canterbury is generally very flat, and there are not so many uphills and downhills, so you can relax and stroll around the city. In Canterbury, I spent about a day and a half touring Westgate gardens & Tower, Canterbury Gallery and Library (The Beauty House of Art & Knowledge), Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine Abbey ruins, and the Roman Museum.
Westgate花园和城门瞭望塔 Westgate gardens & Tower
Walk along the main street from the Canterbury Railway Station, turn left very shortly, and soon you can see a magnificent landmark building like a castle. The building looks very large and spectacular and there is a small river flow through next to it. Affected by the flat terrain, the water flow is slow. There are many tourists and hobbyists rafting here. The areas on both sides of the river have been developed into open parks that enable it being a very relaxing place to go and chill out or to take a nice stroll in the park. You can walk along the river and rest on any of the benches that are spaced alongside or just sit down on the grass or rocks and chill out. You can also have a run around (if you are a kid or an enthusiastic adult) and dogs on the lead are allowed as well. its a very beautiful place to go and visit and there is something for everyone to enjoy. You can even paddle with your feet in the water if you feel up to it.
The Westgate castle has a really long history. Canterbury was walled by the Romans around 300 AD. This has been consistently the most important of the city’s gates as it is the London Road entrance and the main entrance from most of Kent. The present towers are a medieval replacement of the Roman west gate, rebuilt around 1380. There was a gate here at the time of the Norman conquest, which is thought to have been Roman. From late Anglo-Saxon times, it had the Church of the Holy Cross on top, but both church and gate were dismantled in 1379, and the gate was rebuilt by Archbishop Simon Sudbury before he died in the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381. In January 1648, after the Christmas Day riot, Parliamentarians burnt down all the wooden doors of the city’s gates. They were all replaced in 1660, but these replacements were removed at the end of the eighteenth century. Until 1775 there was a grated cage in the prison gateway, where certain prisoners were allowed to beg for alms and speak with passers-by.
坎特伯雷大座堂 Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral is the largest cathedral I have seen since I came to the UK. I believe that every tourist who visits here will be shocked by its massive scale. To enter from the main entrance, you need to cross the gift shop and square to enter the church.
The reason why the famous British poet Oden compared Canterbury Cathedral to the “great wheel of the soul” is because this building carries too much historical and cultural accumulation. According to historical records, Canterbury was very prosperous before the Roman invasion in 43 AD and had close trade relations with Belgium and other European countries. It is said that St. Martin’s Church was built in this era. In 597 AD, Augustine, the abbot of St. Andrew’s Abbey from Rome, used St. Martin’s Church as a base to preach Christianity and built St. Augustine’s Abbey and Canterbury Cathedral. These three religious buildings laid the foundation for the development of Christianity in the United Kingdom. basis.
坎特伯雷教堂（Canterbury Cathedral）是英国最古老、最著名的基督教建筑之一，位于英国东南的肯特郡郡治坎特伯雷。它是英国圣公会首席主教坎特伯雷大主教的主教座堂，坎特伯雷大主教还是普世圣公宗的精神领袖。教堂的正式名称是“坎特伯雷基督教堂和大主教教堂（Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury）。教堂本身已被列为世界遗产。公元597年，传教士奥古斯汀受教皇的委派，从罗马赴英国传教。他在四十名修士的伴随下，来到作为撒克逊人的肯特王国都城的坎特伯雷。当时的国王是个异教徒，但王后原是法兰克公主，信仰基督教。在王后的帮助下，奥古斯丁在这里站稳了脚跟，成为第一位坎特伯雷大主教，并把基督教传播到整个英格兰。因此，在英格兰，坎特伯雷被人们形象地比喻为基督教信仰的摇篮。 当时，肯特君主艾塞尔伯特国王正好与基督徒贝莎结婚。不知道艾塞尔伯特国王是否是受他妻子影响，他允许奥古斯丁在坎特伯雷东边的城墙外修建一座修道院。艾塞尔伯特国王下令这个教堂要成为“一座显赫的教堂，致力于保佑使徒彼得和保罗，而且会赠予它无数的财宝。”(“becoming splendour, dedicated to the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, and endowed it with a variety of gifts”）这段修道院修建的历史由14世纪的一位史学家威廉·索恩记录了下来。这块区域原本有三个教堂，分别是纪念圣徒潘克拉斯、圣徒彼特和圣徒保罗。撒克逊人将纪念圣徒潘克拉斯的教堂保持至今，而另外两座教堂被诺曼人重建合成了一座建筑。最主要的原因是这个修道院右边是肯特国王和坎特伯雷大主教墓地。
Canterbury Cathedral (Canterbury Cathedral) is one of the oldest and most famous Christian buildings in the UK. It is located in Canterbury in the county of Kent in southeast England. It is the Cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of the Anglican Church. The Archbishop of Canterbury is also the spiritual leader of the universal Anglican. The official name of the church is “Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury”. The church itself has been listed as a World Heritage Site. In 597 AD, the missionary Augustine was appointed by the Pope to go from Rome to British missionary. He was accompanied by forty monks to Canterbury, the capital of the Saxon Kingdom of Kent. The king was a pagan, but the queen was originally a Frankish princess who believed in Christianity. With the help of the queen, Augustine was in It has gained a firm foothold here, becoming the first Archbishop of Canterbury and spreading Christianity throughout England. Therefore, in England, Canterbury is vividly compared to the cradle of the Christian faith. At that time, King Esselbert, the monarch of Kent, happened to be married to Christian Bessa. It is not known whether King Esselbert was influenced by his wife. He allowed Augustine to build a monastery outside the city walls east of Canterbury. King Esselbert ordered this church to become “a prominent church dedicated to blessing the apostles Peter and Paul, and will give it countless treasures.” (“becoming splendor, dedicated to the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, and endowed it with a variety of gifts”) The history of the construction of this monastery was recorded by a historian William Thorne in the 14th century. There were originally three churches in this area, commemorating Saint Pancras, Saint Peter, and Saint Paul. The Saxons kept the church commemorating Saint Pancras to this day, while the other two churches were rebuilt by the Normans into one building. The main reason is that to the right of this monastery is the cemetery of King Kent and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The reconstruction of the cathedral started in 1070, and it has undergone continuous expansion. The central hall was built between 1391 and 1405, the north and south transepts were built from 1414 to 1468, and the three towers were also built in different periods. The tall and narrow central hall and the towering central towers, as well as the north and south buildings on the west façade, show the upward momentum of Gothic architecture, while the east façade shows a strong Norman style. At the east end of the church, there is a huge basement to commemorate St Thomas. Celebrities such as Henry IV, the son of Edward III, and the black prince who fought the battlefield of France during the Hundred Years’ war were also buried in the church. The armors, shields, and other weapons they used are also displayed here.
圣奥古斯丁修道院St Augustine’s Abbey Heritage
St. Augustine’s Abbey was built in 598 AD and is currently one of the oldest churches in the UK. Pope Gregory I sent Saint Augustine to England to preach Catholicism in 597 AD. With the promise of King Ethelbert of Kent, Saint Augustine was able to build a church outside the palace walls for worshipers to worship. The three rooms consist of wood, flint, The Saxon-style chapel composed of bricks and tiles became the earliest building here. After the Norman people in the north invaded, they converted the original three small churches into a majestic stone building with a majestic exterior and beautiful interior. Part of the carved and painted wall fragments are currently preserved at the entrance of the museum. Until 1500 AD, churches continued to be built, and the number of priests continued to increase. It is said that there were more than 2,000 books in the library at that time, many of which were written by the priests in the church. On July 30, 1538 AD, the parish was converted to the Anglican Church, and he obeyed Henry VIII’s order to begin the 15-year destruction. Part of the church was converted into a royal palace to serve as the fourth wife of Henry VIII, Queen Ann from France, to marry to the UK halfway.
In the 12th century, the aforementioned contradiction between Henry II and Thomas Beckett occurred in Canterbury. The struggle between the royal family and the church eventually led to the martyrdom of Archbishop St. Thomas Beckett. His spirit is revered by people, and it is said that his relics also have the magical function of curing diseases. In the hundreds of years since then, people who came to Canterbury for pilgrimage have spread all over Europe, and the religious status of Canterbury Cathedral has been greatly improved. And this story has always been talked about by people, extolled in poems, novels, dramas, and movies. During the reign of Henry VIII, the monastery was demolished by the royal family and declined.