Clinical Psychology

The development of clinical psychology at Surrey was the second major growth area with the appointment of Lionel Hayward. Like Terence, Lionel went to University (Bristol, BA, MA; Leiden PhD) after his war service (Technical Training Command of the RAF, later working with RAF Police HQ in Germany). He was much affected by his exposure to the concentration camps on their liberation and it retained a deeply humane approach to patients and students as well as colleagues. After leaving school he initially trained as a tailor and it has been suggested that this was probably one of the factors that led to which may have contributed to his ‘dapper appearance’. He held appointments at hospitals in Bristol, Durham and Chichester as an Assistant Psychologist and finally as Consultant. He joined Surrey in 1971 to take up an appointment as Director of Clinical Training. Lionel was an expert witness in a number of major if not notorious trials in the 1970s: Malcolm X, Donald Neilson aka the ‘Black Panther’, John Stonehouse M.P. and the ‘OZ’ trial. He also presented evidence before Lord Butler’s Commission on the Mentally Abnormal Offender, Lord Devlin’s Committee on Identification, and Lord Fisher’s enquiry into the Confait Confessions. Lionel is generally credited as the ‘father’ of forensic/criminal psychology in the UK being the first to use the name the sub-discipline adopted, forensic psychology, to characterise the application of psychological theories and methods in the service of the law. In 1970, the International Academy of Forensic Psychology, of which he was a Fellow, presented him with the Holmes-Munsterberg Award for “the highest achievement in contributing to the advancement of knowledge in the field of forensic psychology”. Lionel wrote the first major text in forensic psychology (Hayward, 1981) documenting his extensive involvement in police inquiries. An early student of Lionel’s was a young Icelandic former police officer, Gisli Gudjonsson, who subsequently became a professor at the Institute of Psychiatry and is a leading expert in suggestibility and false confessions. Gisli and Lionel worked on Forensic Psychology: a Guide to Practice (Gudjonsson & Hayward, 1998) which was an update and extension to that Lionel’s first text. Lionel’s work in consolidating Clinical Psychology was supported by Iraj Mottahedin and Sandra Canter.

Iraj Mottahedin was Head of Psychology Services in West Sussex and Clinical Tutor to the Clinical Psychology course.  Like Lionel he had a special interest in hypnosis, particularly in the treatment of phobic disorders.  He was responsible for the clinical placements of the trainees and liaised with all the NHS psychology services in the Region to ensure the best possible practical training.

Sandra Canter was a clinical psychologist trained in Canada and came from Glasgow University where she was a Lecturer in Clinical Psychology.   She worked jointly in the University and the Health Service and provided both teaching and practical training to the clinical psychology students on the Surrey course.  She had a special interest in social skills training and with Jill Wilkinson researched, wrote and trained in this area.  She went from Surrey to head up Psychological Services in Chertsey, Queen Mary’s University Hospital, Roehampton, and eventually South-East Cheshire.

Lionel Hayward established the MSc in Clinical Psychology and a PhD programme. This was achieved with the support of the Regional Health Authority who provided the funding for the trainees and was very much a joint venture with the NHS Psychology Departments.  Many psychologists from the Region contributed to the teaching on the course.

Lionel’s successor Graham Powell, together with Elizabeth Campbell (and later Robert Edelman), took the course to a new level with the introduction in 1993 of the PsychD in Clinical Psychology programme. This was one of the first PsychD programmes in clinical psychology in the country. In fact, the PsychD in Counselling and Therapeutic Psychology was the first PsychD programme in this domain of psychology, and so adding to Surrey’s reputation for initiating new postgraduate programmes, either in terms of the mode of delivery such as the Psych D, or in terms of subject matter (e.g., the MSc in Environmental Psychology and the MSc in Investigative Psychology). After leaving Surrey, Graham continued his association with the Maudsley, help set up a clinical psychology training course in Bangladesh, and worked full time in private practice (since 1995). Graham has always played an important role in the British Psychological Society where he became Chair of The Psychologist Policy Committee, Chair of the Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology, and President of the BPS (2005 – 2006).

Figure 1: Jill Wilkinson, Glynis Breakwell and Elizabeth Campbell (1988)

Figure 1: Jill Wilkinson, Glynis Breakwell and Elizabeth Campbell (1988)

Elizabeth Campbell pioneered, with colleagues Graham Powell, Robert Edelmann and Jennifer Brown, stress counselling interventions for police officers and staff. Elizabeth returned to her native Scotland to take up an appointment at Glasgow University, first as Senior Lecturer (1996) and then Head of the Division of Psychological Medicine (2005) at the Gartnavel Royal Hospital. She was heavily involved in professional development and work in several capacities in the British Psychological Society becoming its President in 2008. Liz steered the society through some difficult consultations with the Health Professional Council concerning the regulation of psychologists. With Jennifer Brown she edited a major reference book on forensic psychology before her untimely death in 2010 (Brown & Campbell, 2010).

Mary John and Paul Davis joined the Department in 1996 as clinical tutors. Mary John became Acting Programme Director when Elizabeth Campbell and Robert Edelman left the Department to move to the University of Glasgow and Roehampton University, respectively. Linda Dowdney joined as Programme Director of the Clinical course in April 1997 and held that position for just over three years. One of the clinical appointments during this period was Professor Tom McMillan, who held the Chair in Clinical Psychology. Tom was a neuropsychologist and had been involved with the Camelford Inquiry, providing evidence on the neurological impact of the toxins in the water supply. He left to take a chair at Glasgow University. Tom McMillan and Sarah Wilson were the second husband and wife psychologists to be on the staff at Surrey (David and Sandra Canter being the first). Arlene Vetere joined the Department in 2003 as a senior lecturer and Deputy Programme Director. On Linda’s departure, Mary re-joined the Department in 2004, having left in 2000 to have her son and take up as Head of Psychology and Psychotherapy in Sussex Weald and Downs NHS Trust, and then to lead psychology and psychotherapy services in a larger trust covering West Sussex. Mary continues to be Programme Director and in 2015 was appointed Head of the Department of Psychological Interventions in the newly restructured School of Psychology. Nan Holmes also arrived in 2000 as a senior clinical tutor with responsibility for ensuring trainees had access to high quality placements and that the trainees gained helpful and constructive feedback on their clinical skill development. Mention should also be made of Dora Brown and Tushna Vandrevala who arrived in 1996 to work as post docs on the clinical programme supporting the trainees with their research. Dora subsequently successfully applied for a lectureship with the PsychD in Counselling and Therapeutic Psychology, and was, with Adrian Coyle, provided much support to those students both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels who wanted to undertake qualitative dissertations.